Tinka Katic

The National and University Library, Zagreb




1. Introduction


While considering the structure of the MARC record as well as the structure of the machine readable catalogue, it is not enough today to follow only ISBDs. It is necessary to reconsider it in the light of entity-relationship model presented in the study Functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR).[1]  The model offers a new conceptualization of bibliographic information organization. During the last few years it had great impact both within the library and wider information communities as was reviewed systematically but far from exhaustively by John D. Byrum and Olivia M. A. Madison.[2]

In order to meet a broad range of users’ requirements, the FRBR determines which functions, i.e. goals or aims, a bibliographic record has to fulfil. These requirements are defined as to find, identify, select and obtain the needed entity. Data elements that describe these requirements were extracted from ISBDs, GARE (Guidelines for Authority and Reference Entries), GSARE (Guidelines for Subject Authority and Reference Entries), UNIMARC Manual: Bibliographic Format and AITF Categories for the Description of Works of Art. To structure data elements identified in such a way, the entity-relationship model which comprises  entities, attributes and their relationships was chosen. The model caters for all types of the library material, media (carrier), and formats.

FRBR describes three groups of entities. The entities of the first group are: work, expression, manifestation and item. The entities of the second group (persons and corporate bodies) are responsible for intellectual and artistic creation, production or ownership of the entities of the first group. The entities of the third group (concept, object, event  and place) are used in subject cataloguing. Entities of the first two groups can also be a topic of the work.

The attributes of entities important to the users are data elements as they are defined in ISBDs, GARE and GSARE assuming that they are the elements for creating  users’ requests and users’ interpretation of the answers to their requests.

The relationships are described as relationships between the entities of each group of entities (the relation between work, expression, manifestation and item, persons and corporate bodies relationship to the entities of the first group; subject relationship to work), and relationships between the same entity of the first group of entities (work-to-work relationship; expression-to-expression relationship; manifestation-to-manifestation relationship etc.). To assess their value, attributes and entity relationships were reconsidered in relation to users’ tasks to find, identify, select and obtain certain entity or group of entities.

One of the possible purposes of the entity-relationship model is to serve as a basis for the revision of national cataloguing codes. The actual Croatian cataloguing code is based on international standards valid in the seventies and eighties when it was compiled.  Since its provisions regulate modern printed material,  the Code’s revision is needed because other types of material and new media are present in the library. Beside description of new types of material, revision must also include description of older book which is, as a result of various retrospective activities, particularly present both in general and specialized databases, and is part of different digital projects. Thus it seemed useful to examine whether the entity-relationship model developed for the FRBR is applicable in organising rules for older books’ cataloguing. Since cataloguing rules must be expressed in the content and structure of a bibliographic record, the function of the model in the UNIMARC record was also examined.


2. Definition of the older book


The older book, as well as any other book, is primarily defined by the dichotomy of work and its material carrier.  The specific characteristic of the older book is its belonging to the period from the 15th century when the printing was invented to approximately the first part of the 19th century. The belonging to that period is evident in the specific characteristics of older book as a result of the way in which it was produced. These specific characteristics are connected with very complex publishing and printing relationships between all available edition, issues, impressions and states. They also depend on changes which have impact on a book after it left printing house. Namely, chronologically determined definition of the older book should be expanded to include multiple relationships in the communication chain: publisher and/or printer - distributor - reader/user/owner, in which each participant has a special role in  creating its special nature .


3. Users’ community: its structure and requirements


Bibliographic processing of the older book is closely connected with the users’ needs, i.e. researchers who belong to the wide range of scientific disciplines. Primarily, there is a study of the literature and textual history which is a part of the history of the book. The history of producing, using and impact of printed artefacts is fundamental for other studies connected with a history of the art (graphics, miniature, binding crafts etc.),  a history of the book, a history of the libraries both public and private, sociological researches in reading, book collection etc. In one word, the intellectual and cultural history as a whole.


4. Bibliographic relationships


In the 1950ies and 1960ies the librarians were focused on work-item relationship in attempting to determine library catalogue’s functions. This relationships were derived from the definition of the book as a dichotomy of work and material carrier i.e. literary item and bibliographic item. Almost all cataloguing rules created at that time were based on the mentioned relationship, the only difference being that some of cataloguing traditions preferred literary item and others bibliographic item in determining the main function of the catalogue.

In the following decades, the changes that affected library catalogues with the introduction and development of automation, made experts reconsider the possibility of changing the conceptual structure of information organization in these catalogues. Beside a lot of individual attempts of identifying bibliographic relationships, the most important one is certainly the recent  FRBR study, i.e. entity-relationship model.

As it was mentioned before, Croatian cataloguing code was founded on the international principles and standards. The provisions related to the choice and form of headings are based on the Paris Principles while the rules for cataloguing description are based on the ISBD(M). Although the code is principally based on the literary item-bibliographic item relationship, i.e. work and item, it caters for other entities sometimes explicitly, sometimes implicitely. For example, in the definition of the three main functions of  the catalogue, the code mentions verbatim revisions and translations, i.e. expressions of a work in  the FRBR’s terminology, and editions, i.e. manifestations in the FRBR’s terminology. In the provisions for the choice and form of headings, as well as bibliographic description, all the entities are mentioned implicitely. The revision of the cataloguing code in the light of FRBR, should therefore explicate these entities as well as build on it the requirements for the older book.


5. Structuring the MARC record for the older book: the application of entity-relationship model


A complex relationships which resulted from the complex bibliographic history of older book, as well as its complex content structure should be recorded in machine readable record. These relationships can be expressed by the entity-relationship model: by the first group of entities - work, expression, manifestation and item and by the relationships within one type of entity (e.g. work-to-work). By  putting the first group of entities into relationships with the entities of the other three groups, the bibliographic record brings together works and their authors, translations and their translators, editions and their producers, items and their former owners etc.


5.1 Case study: entity-relationship model


The application of the entity-relationship model was examined on the example of Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum. Due to the fact that this most famous Marulic’s work was published in numerous editions during the centuries, it was a good example to verify the functionality of the model. The analysis was restricted to the Latin original printed in Venice in 1506 and its German and Italian translations printed in Venice and Dillingen in 1583. The copies are owned by the National and University Library in Zagreb.

First, the relationships between the entities of the first group - work (w), expression (e), manifestation (m) and item (i), were considered using data elements (entities and their attributes)  from Appendix A in the FRBR. As it was pointed out several times that entites and their relationships as well as a list of attributes are comprehensive, but not exaustive, the missing data elments for structuring the record of older book were found in the Croatian cataloguing code, ISBD(A), UNIMARC Guideline No. 3: Older Monographic Publications (Antiquarian) and UNIMARC Manual:  Bibliographic Format.

To indicate other types of relationships the scheme from the FRBR was used.

In the examples of Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum  the following relationships are recognized:


5.1.1 Work- expression- manifestation- item relationship


On the top level is a work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum which was realized through three expressions. Each expression was embodied in separate manifestations and each manifestation was exemplified in an item possesed by the National and University Library Zagreb.


w1 De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

            e1 Original in Latin

m1        De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum.   

            Venetiis ..., anno D[domi]ni die x. mensis Februarii>

                                                i1 NSK: RIIF-16o-80

                e2 Translation in Italian

m1        De institutione del buono et beato vivere secondo

            l’esempio de’ Santi ... In Bergamo ..., 1583.

                                i1 NSK: RIIF-8o-61


e3 Translation in German

m1        Sechs Buecher von Gedaechtnusss wuerdigen Reden

            und Thatten ... Getruckt zu Dilingen ..., M.D.LXXXIII.

                        i1 NSK: RIIF-8o-319


            After the recognition of the relationships between the entities of the first group three UNIMARC records were created.

In the Example 1:

(1) A work is decribed by the uniform title heading.

(2) Expression is described by the year, which is exactly the year of publication, and by the language in which it was realized.

(3) Manifestation is described following the ISBDs areas: title and statement of responsibility area, imprint area and physical description area. The only exception is made in note area that is dispersed in the record describing a particular entity.

(4) Item is described using UNIMARC fields especially developed for older books cataloguing.


Almost the same was done in the next two examples. A difference can be noticed on the expression level which is described by the year, original language and language of translation both in the coded field 101 and as an addition to the uniform title as well as by the note on translation.


Example 1:


w1 Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

500 10 $3 941202031$a De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum


e1 Original in Latin: De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

100 ## $a 19930513d1506       y0hrvy0191    na

                101 0# $a lat


            m1 a Book printed  in Venice 1506

200 1# $a Marcus Marulus Spalatensis De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum $a M. Maruli Carmen de doctrina Domini nostri Iesu Christi pendentis in cruce$c Carme[n] Hieronymi Macareli ...$c Lamp. Francisco Lucensi [epigramma in fine]

300 ## $a Jed. oblik autorova imena: Marko Marulic

700 #1 $3 910312027$a Marulic$b Marko


423 #1 $1 2001#$a Carmen$1700#1$a Macareli$b Girolamo

                                423 #1 $1 2001#$a Epigramma$1700$a Consorti$b Francesco


300 ## $a List Q7: Jacobus Grasolarius ad lectorem; Franciscus Lucensis de [Con]sortibus ad lectore[m]

702 #1 $3 910312028$a Grasolarius$b Jacobus$4 075

                                702 11 $3 930513008$a Consorti$b Francesco de$4075


102 ## $a IT

210 ## $a Impressit Venetiis$c presbiter Fra[n]ciscus Lucensis de Co[n]sortibus ... et Bernardinus de Vitalib[us] Venetus$d anno D[domi]ni die x. mensis Februarii>

300 ## $a Podaci o izdavanju preuzeti iz kolofona

620 ## $a Italija$d Venezia

702 11 $3 930513008$a Consorti$b Francesco de$4 750

                                702 11 $3 930513032$a Vitali$b Bernardino$4 750


                                215 ## $a [334] listova$d 16o (15 cm)

300 ## $a Sig.: a8-z8, A8-Q8

                                300 ## $a Inicijali



i1 Incomplete copy owned by the National and University Library Zagreb, previous owner: Vicenzo Capelli

                                        141 ## $a f  b0ee$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

316 ## $a Nedostaje poglavlje XI. i XII. u cetvrtoj knjizi i pocetak pete knjige$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

                                                316 ## $a Uvezano u kartonske korice, bez hrpta$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

                317 ## $a Na nasl. str. zapis: Vincy Capelli$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

318 ## $a Pregledano$c 19941129$l Dobro ocuvano$n Restaurirati uvez $5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

702 11 $3 941129068$a Capelli$b Vicenzo$4 390$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-16o-80

                                    990 ## $a RIIF-16o-80

                                                990 ## $a 62.775 (st. sig.)

                                                990 ## $a SM.26.G.13. (st. sig.)


Example 2:


w1 Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

500 10 $3 941202031$a De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum


e2 Translation in Italian:  De institutione del buono et beato vivere secondo l’esempio de’ Santi ...

100 ## $a 19941202d1583       y0hrvy0191    ba

                101 1# $a ita$c lat

300 ## $a Prijevod djela: De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum / Marko Marulic prev. Remigio Nannini

500 10 $3 941202031$a De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum$m tal. prijevod


            m1 A book printed in Bergamo 1583

200 1# $a Institutione del buono et beato vivere secondo l' essempio de' Santi del Vecchio e Nuouo Testamento$f composta da Marco Marulo da Spalato$g e tradotta dalla latina nella italiana lingua, dal R. P. Maestro Remigio Fiorentino, dell' ordine de' predicatori

            300 ## $a Jed. oblik autorova imena: Marko Marulic

                        700 #1 $3 910312027$a MarulicbMarko

                                702 11 $3 930705210$a Nannini$b Remigio$4 730


205 ## $a Di nuovo con diligenza ristampata, e da notabilissimi errori emendata, con l' aggiunta di una copiosa tavola, oltra quella delle principali materie


102 ## $a IT

210 ## $a In Bergamo$c apresso Comino Ventura$d 1583

620 ## $a Italija$d Bergamo

                        702 11 $3 930806042$a Ventura$b Comino$4 750


i1 A well-preserved paperboard copy, owned by the National and University Library Zagreb

141 ## $a fb b0bb$5CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-61  

316 ## $a Uvezano u sarene kartonske korice s koznatim hrptom; na hrptu naljepnica: 53$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-61

318 ## $a Pregledano$c 19941202$l Dobro ocuvano$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-61

                                    990 ## $a RIIF-8o-61

                                990 ## $a R 2558 (st. sig.)


Example 3:


w1 Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

500 10 $3 941202031$a De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum


e3 Translation in German: M. Maruli Spalatensis Sechs Buecher von Gedaechtnusss wuerdigen Reden und Thatten ...

100 ## $a 19941208d1583       y0hrvy0191    ba

                101 1# $a ger$c lat

300 ## $a Prijevod djela: De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum / Marko Marulic prev. Hermann Baumgartern

500 10 $3 941205099$a De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum$m njem. prijevod


m1 A book printed in Dillingen 1583

200 1# $a M. Maruli Spalatensis Sechs Buecher. Von Gedaechtnuss wuerdigen Reden und Thatten. Oder: Von Lehr und Underweisung das Leben wol und selig anzustellen nach form der Hailigen  Lebens Altes und Newen Testaments ... $f in teutsche Spraach gebracht durch Herman Baumgartern Burgern und Bischofflichen Fiscal zu[m] Augspurg


300 ## $a [Str. 3-7:] Dem hochwuerdigen Fuersten und Herrn Marquarden vom Berg Bischoffen zu Augspurg und Thumprobsten zu Bamberg meinem gnedigen Fuersten und Herrn ... / Herman Baumgartern

                        300 ## $a Jed. oblik autorova imena: Marko Marulic

            700 #1 $3 910312027$a Marulic$bMarko

                                702 11 $3 941205102$a Baumgartern$b Hermann$4 730$4 290


210 ## $a Getruckt zu Dilingen$c durch Johannem Mayer$d M.D.LXXXIII

620 ## $a Njemacka$d Dillingen

                        702 11 $3 941205100$a Mayer$b Johann$4 750


                        215 ## $a [68], 964 str.$c ilustr.$d 8o (22 cm)

                        300 ## $a Got.


i1 A copy presented to the National and University Library Zagreb by Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski

141 ## $a b  a0ea$5CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

316 ## $a Uvezano u  koznate korice s utisnutim ukrasima$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

316 ## $a Na poledini prednje korice zapis na lat. jeziku$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

317 ## $a Na poledini prednje korice zapis: Daruje Sveucilišnoj knjiznici: Ivan Kukuljevic5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

318 ## $a Pregledano$c 19941208$l Dobro ocuvano, hrbat djelomicno ostecen$n Restaurirati uvez$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

702 11 $3 910724176$a Kukuljevic-Sakcinski$b Ivan$4 320$5 CiZaNSK: RIIF-8o-319

990 ## $a RIIF-8o-319

                                                990 ## $a 62.856 (st. sig.)

990 ## $a SM.27.B.22. (st. sig.)



5.1.2 Relationships between entity person to the first group of entities Person-to-work relationship (created by)


p1 Marko Marulic (author)

            w1 De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

            w2 Carmen de doctrina Domini nostri Iesu Christi pendentis in cruce


p1 Girolamo Macareli (author)

            w1 Carmen


p1 Francesco Consorti (author)

            w1 Epigramma Person-to-expression relationship (realised by)


p1 Remigio Nanni (translator)

e1 Italian translation of the work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

p1 Hermann Baumgartern (translator)

e1 German translation of the work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum Person-to-manifestation relationship (produced by)


p1 Francesco Consorti (printer)

p1 Bernardino Vitali (printer)

            m1 A book printed in Venice 1506


p1 Comino Ventura (printer)

            m1 A book printed in Bergamo 1583


p1 Johann Mayer (printer)

m1 A book printed in Dillingen 1583 Person-to-item (owned by)


p1 Vicenzo Capelli (former owner)

            i1 A copy NSK RIIF-16o-80 was owned by V. Capelli

p1 Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski (donator)

i1 A copy NSK RIIF-8o-319 was presented to the Library by Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski 


5.1.3 Subject relationship Concept


c1 Moral teology

            w1 De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum


5.1.4 Expression-to-expression relationship


w1 Marko Marulic’s work De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum

e1 Author’s original text in Latin

translated into®

¬ is a translation of

e2 Italian, Italian translation

e3 German, German translation


5.1.5 Other possible relationships


The relationship on the manifestation level for the entity “produced in” is missing. The authors of the study considered the problem but they did not solve it. For this issue they proposed the creation of additional direct link from manifestation to the existing entity place or indirect link from manifestation to person/corporate body (printer, publisher) responsible for production of the manifestation.[3]


5.2 Discussion


In each record, the first group of entities (work, expression, manifetation, item) are described for the original in Latin and for the two translations in German and Italian. In order to establish relationships with the entities of the second and the third group, access points are added to the descriptive elements. In this way the following relationships are provided for: author-work; translator-expression; producer-manifestation; item-previous owner/donator. The relationships between records (collocative function) are created by uniform title heading (work), author’s name heading (person), and subject heading (work).

In other words, elements of information are aggregated at one place according to their common functions. A record “constructed” in such a way enables a modular access because it contains both data elements (description) (e.g. entity “manifestation”: ISBD’s publication, distribution etc. and notes on publication, printing etc., and MARC’s relevant coded data) and access points (e.g. place access, printer’s name, distributor’s name), as well as relationships. These relationships can function within a particular entity (e.g. printer’s name and year of publication and place of publication), and relationships with other (modulary described) entities (e.g. Italian translation of a work, i.e. “expression” printed in Venice in 16th century, i.e. “manifestation”).  On the contrary, in a linear description according to ISBDs, pieces of information (data elements) are given one by one, following the logical sequence of the title page. At first glance, it appears that the user can get the same information from the ISBD record as from the one modelled according to the FRBR. However, FRBR makes us think about bibliographic information in a way that it is to be described, accessed and displayed in a particular group/aggregated form. These are the real  advantages of using the model.

The record structured in such a way can meet the users’ needs as they are defined in the FRBR. This is possible for all three groups of entities that will enable  user to find a certain work, identify all its expressions and manifestations, select certain expressions and manifestations and obtain the item which is most appropriate to the user’s query.



6. Conclusion

6.1 Revision of cataloguing codes


Description of the rich relationships between entities enabled by the FRBR model is particularly important for the period of five centuries to which the older book belongs. A significant number of books of that period were realized in several expressions and published in more than one manifestations, out of which n-items have been preserved. Each of these items as a specific entity, together with other entities such as work, expression, manifestation, person and subject, can be the subject of research of different categories of older book researchers. In the revision of the cataloguing code therefore it will be necessary to examine the following: (1) whether the principles for the bibliographic description contain all three groups of entities, relationships between entities within the first group, and relationships between each group of entities, all of which, by identifying relations between editions, impressions, issues and states, would express the complexity of printing process and refer to the work contained in these editions; (2) link all persons or corporate bodies responsible for the intellectual and artistic content of the work, and all those who participated in the creation of the work/edition/impression/issue and in the history of the item, and (3) describe all material characteristics of the book which identify it as a unique object, i.e. an artefact.

The revision of cataloguing code can take the following directions: (1) retain the present state if the four level model is considered to be only a more detailed concept of the two level model (work-item); (2) redefine functions of the bibliographic record and certain cataloguing rules to make the model more transparent i.e. explicit mention of entities and their relationships; and (3) explicitness of the FRBR entitiy-relationship model make the organisational model of cataloguing code instead of the linearity of  ISBD structural areas. If the first proposal is seen as a status quo, is the second one evolution, while the third one revolution?


6.2 Reexamination of MARC record


Examples created in the UNIMARC format show that we already have a tool for the creation of a full bibliographic record in which it is possible to express  relationships and enable access to all relevant data elements of description. Further analysis of the use of UNIMARC within such a model is needed to show whether UNIMARC needs to be extended to incorporate some new relationships or attributes to the entities for the older book.


6.3 Record level


However, if there is a wish to meet all the requirements for bibliographic records and fulfil all the users’ queries, i.e. to follow the consensus present in most cataloguing codes for the full record description of older books, it will not be possible to follow the minimal level description as proposed in the FRBR.


6.4 The definition of functional requirements for authority records (FRANAR)


It is necessary to stress the importance of the definition of functional requirements for authority records as complementary requirements to the bibliographic records which is expected from the Working Group on Functional Requirements and Numbering for Authority Records - FRANAR.[4]


6.5 The design of the search and retrieval interfaces


Well structured and related bibliographic and authority records are essential in retrospective projects – national bibliographies/databases for older book, and multinational databases which will enable reconstruction of the five century common European cultural circle, as it was evident in the example of Marulic’s work and its translations printed in different places, and owned by different persons. To which extent would they fulfil functional requirements defined in the FRBR depends also on the design of the search and retrieval interfaces. Furthermore, in their design, it is necessary to take into consideration the establishment of the links between the entities and their links to their digital forms since the model is particularly applicable for their integration with the traditionally printed material.


6.6 The further development of the FRBR


The development of the  FRBR, from the point of view  of rare book librarian, is needed at the manifestation level for the relationship “produced in”. The use of full bibliographic record for the description of rare books and consequently the expansion of Appendix A are also needed.  These problems are mentioned in the FRBR but their compilers do not solve them. The further development should also be connected with the development of  the FRANAR  in order to integrate functional requirements of bibliographic and authority records as they function in integrated bibliographic and authority databases.


[1] Functional requirements for bibliographic records : final report / IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; approved by the Standing Committee of the IFLA Section on Cataloguing [International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Programme]. Muenchen : K. G. Saur, 1998. (UBCIM Publications, New Series; vol. 19)

[2] Byrum, John D.; Olivia M. A. Madison. Reflections on the goals, concepts and recommendations of the IFLA Study on functional requirements for bibliographic records. // FRBR (Functional requirements for bibliographic records) Seminar. Florence, 27-28 January 2000.

[3] Functional requirements for bibliographic records, pag. 31.

[4] Byrum, John D.; Olivia M. A. Madison. Ibid., pag. 10.